It may have both an anti-spirochaete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. And caution is required if patients have certain heart conditions, diabetes, psoriasis etc. Hydroxychloroquine and liver Chloroquine hair loss Hydroxychloroquine HXCHL is an antimalarial drug that may have antihyperglycemic properties in patients with diabetes. One previous 6 month blinded study reported that HXCHL decreased glycated hemoglobin GHb by an absolute amount of 3.3% 6 when added to patients with type 2 diabetes who were refractory to high doses of insulin or pills. The mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine remain under continuous study in modern molecular medicine 17,18 using advanced tools in computational biology 19, synthetic biology. Objectives. This review examines the pharmacokinetics, modes of action and therapeutic properties of the anti-malarial drugs, hydroxychloroquine HCQ and chloroquine CQ, in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis RA and related conditions, as well as osteoarthritis OA. The most serious adverse effects affect the eye, with dose-related retinopathy as a concern even after hydroxychloroquine use is discontinued. The most common adverse effects are a mild nausea and occasional stomach cramps with mild diarrhea. Mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine in diabetes Effectiveness of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in., Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Chloroquine dose for prophylaxis Its mechanism of action is unknown. Malarial parasites invade human red blood cells. Hydroxychloroquine may prevent malarial parasites from breaking down metabolizing hemoglobin in human red blood cells. Hydroxychloroquine is effective against the malarial parasites Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil Side Effects & Dosage for.. Therapy and pharmacological properties of. - SpringerLink. Plaquenil hydroxychloroquine sulfate dosing, indications.. The beneficial changes in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity reported among patients with lupus, patients with type 2 diabetes, and in animal models suggest that these effects are not specific to rheumatoid arthritis. 8-13 The fact that antimalarials favorably affect dyslipidemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, independent of steroid use, 32 suggests the possibility that hydroxychloroquine may have a role in reducing 2 key risk factors for atherosclerosis, namely. Since HCQ is an immunomodulatory drug has an inhibitory and an immunomodulatory effect on T cells and interleukin 1 and interleukin 6 and type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, a possible reduction in islet-cell autoimmunity by HCQ could be the underlying mechanism since our patient has longstanding type 1 diabetes with no insulin reserve and an effect on insulin resistance is less likely to be the underlying mechanism that led to the improvement in glycemic control Ben-Zvi et al. 2011. Chloroquine is a 9-aminoquinoline known since 1934. Apart from its well-known antimalarial effects, the drug has interesting biochemical properties that might be applied against some viral infections. Chloroquine exerts direct antiviral effects, inhibiting pH-dependent steps of the replication of several viruses including members of the flaviviruses, retroviruses, and coronaviruses. Its best.